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Item2-STCg optical multicast traffic grooming node for the fishbone-like Peruvian WDM core network(IEEE Computer Society, 2011) Nereida, Llerena; Fernández Del Carpio, GonzaloIn some developing countries, like Peru, optical transport networks are not widely deployed, mainly because of economical factors and geographical difficulties. Its topology has a fishbone-like structure, and it may not need powerful all-optical multicast nodes in order to attend multicast demands. Also, traffic demands may not occupy all the wavelength capacities, which make traffic grooming a necessary capability for saving bandwidth. In the present work we propose an optical node capable of performing multicast routing tasks at traffic grooming level. The node's architecture has been based on two previous works: the 2-Split-Tap-and-Continue (2-STC) node (a multicast capable node with a simple structure, constrained to binary-splitting, but efficient regarding the use of power levels and the number of elements used), and the Stop-and-Go (S/G) Light Tree node (a multicast grooming capable node that uses a labeling technique based on FSK modulation, allowing multicast requests to be routed at the optical level). In this sense, the proposed node improves the use of the optical power, waste of bandwidth and delay, taking advantage of the physical distribution presented in this particular fishbone-like network. Several simulations have been done and results show these assessments. © 2011 IEEE. Item2015 7th IEEE Latin-American Conference on Communications, LATINCOM 2015: Foreword(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016) Fernández Del Carpio, Gonzalo2015 7th IEEE Latin-American Conference on Communications, LATINCOM 2015: Prólogo ItemA Low-Cost IoT Platform for Heat Stress Monitoring in Dairy Cattle(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2021) Choquehuanca-Zevallos, J.J.; Mayhua-Lopez, E.This paper presents a compact and modular system based on Internet-of- Things for monitoring cattle behavior and stress in real-time. It will help to model certain parameters such as temperature and certain weather variables such as relative humidity, solar radiation, among others thanks to Internet-of- Things (IoT) sensors localized in different points of barns and the fields for cattle farming. A main benefit of the system is that it is built with low-cost hardware and low battery consumption. The wireless system also allows the collection of data in real-time and obtains the temperature-humidity index. This index will give an approach to the heat stress in cattle not only on the farm but in the vicinity of the farm. Finally, the high amount of collected data will allow employing Big Data solutions for estimating the impact on milk productivity. In the future, more sensors will be deployed for a more detailed reading of weather variables and their impact on dairy cattle. © 2021 IEEE. ItemA method based on rf spectral featuresfor evaluating the porosity degree in ceramic materials(IEEE, 2018) Sanchez Suarez, Rudy Marcelino; Choquehuanca Zevallos, Juan JoséIn this paper, a classification system of the degree of porosity of ceramic materials based on a Radio Frequency system is presented. The system uses methods from the machine learning field to learn patterns from spectral features measured with a circular patch antenna. Experimental results show that it is possible to indirectly get an estimate of the degree of porosity of ceramic samples getting low classification error rates. ItemA Methodological Approach to the Learning of Robotics with EDUROSC-Kids(Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2021) Patiño-Escarcina, Raquel E.; Barrios-Aranibar, Dennis; Bernedo-Flores, Liz S;; Alsina, Pablo Javier; Gonçalves, Luiz M.G.With advances in science and technology, several innovative researches have been developed trying to figure out the main problems related to children’s learning. It is known that issues such as frustration and inattention, between others, affect student learning. In this fashion, robotics is an important resource that can be used towards helping to solve these issues, empowering our students in order to push their learning up. In this case, robotic tools are generally used considering two different paradigms: as the main focus and as a secondary focus. Actually, these paradigms define the way that Educational Robotics is implemented in schools. Most of the approaches have implemented it as the main focus, which is teaching Robotics. Nevertheless, there are quite a few works that implement robotics as a secondary focus, which is currently assisting the learning process in several disciplines. The main contribution of this work is a complete three steps methodology for Robotics in Education to guide projects in order to either use it alone or to teach robotics with others topics. Our experiments show the importance of devising a study plan and evaluation method because the process is iterative and could improve the final results. As a novelty, here we have joined and extended our previous works by proposing a new set of methods with guidelines and strategies for applying the educational robotics standard curriculum for kids, named EDUROSC-Kids. We propose several tools that have been developed to organize the learning topics of Robotics for children, including the desired outcomes during the learning process. As said our current approach is divided in three steps (or phases): setting up the environment, defining the project, and performing evaluation. The proposed curriculum organizes robotics contents into five disciplines: Robotics and Society, Mechanics, Electronics, Programming, and Control Theory. Also, it considers a set of topics for each discipline and defines the level of knowledge that is recommended to achieve each group of children based on Bloom’s Nomenclature. The contribution on this paper is a crucial step towards linking the general learning process with Educational Robotics approaches. Our methodology is validated by presenting practical experiences with application of EDUROSC-kids and the proposed method with a rubric guidelines into groups of children. ItemA nonlinear model to estimate nitrogen level in agricultural soil using Gaussian kernels(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017) Sánchez Mora, Katty; Zuñiga Gutierrez, María; Mayhua López, Efraín TitoNitrogen fertilizers are commonly used to improve agricultural productivity. However, its excessive use may cause or lead to environmental problems. Therefore, technologies capable of monitoring and measure levels of nitrogen in agricultural soil in-situ and in real time are required in order to make efficient the use of fertilizers. Nitrogen levels are usually measured by direct and indirect methods. Direct methods can be conducted in-situ or in laboratory, but they are really expensive and/or little resistant to soil conditions. Otherwise, indirect methods can estimate nitrogen levels in-situ and in real time, based on the measure of other parameters, and at the expense of accuracy. This paper proposes an indirect method to estimate the nitrogen level in agricultural soil through the measurement of the levels of electrical conductivity, temperature and humidity. The proposed model uses a nonlinear estimator based on Gaussian kernels. The results after training the model with real data showed values very close to the actual measured values. © 2016 IEEE. ItemA qualitative and quantitative comparison between Web scraping and API methods for Twitter credibility analysis(Emerald Group Holdings Ltd., 2021) Dongo, Irvin; Cardinale, Yudith; Aguilera, Ana; Martinez, Fabiola; Quintero, Yuni; Robayo, German; Cabeza, David"purpose: This paper aims to perform an exhaustive revision of relevant and recent related studies, which reveals that both extraction methods are currently used to analyze credibility on Twitter. Thus, there is clear evidence of the need of having different options to extract different data for this purpose. Nevertheless, none of these studies perform a comparative evaluation of both extraction techniques. Moreover, the authors extend a previous comparison, which uses a recent developed framework that offers both alternates of data extraction and implements a previously proposed credibility model, by adding a qualitative evaluation and a Twitter-Application Programming Interface (API) performance analysis from different locations. Design/methodology/approach: As one of the most popular social platforms, Twitter has been the focus of recent research aimed at analyzing the credibility of the shared information. To do so, several proposals use either Twitter API or Web scraping to extract the data to perform the analysis. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations are performed to discover the advantages and disadvantages of both extraction methods. Findings: The study demonstrates the differences in terms of accuracy and efficiency of both extraction methods and gives relevance to much more problems related to this area to pursue true transparency and legitimacy of information on the Web. Originality/value: Results report that some Twitter attributes cannot be retrieved by Web scraping. Both methods produce identical credibility values when a robust normalization process is applied to the text (i.e. tweet). Moreover, concerning the time performance, Web scraping is faster than Twitter API and it is more flexible in terms of obtaining data; however, Web scraping is very sensitive to website changes. Additionally, the response time of the Twitter API is proportional to the distance from the central server at San Francisco." ItemA study on residents willingness to pay for personal carbon trading and relevant factors(CUPUM, 2013) Zhou, Kui; Jia, San; Kondo, Akio; Konbdo, Akiko; Cartagena Gordillo, AlexUn estudio sobre la disposición de los residentes a pagar por el comercio de carbono personal y los factores relevantes ItemAcoustic Event Classification using spectral band selection and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization-based features(Elsevier Ltd, 2016) Ludeña Choez, Jimmy; Gallardo Antolín, Ascensión; https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#2.02.01Feature extraction methods for sound events have been traditionally based on parametric representations specifically developed for speech signals, such as the well-known Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC). However, the discrimination capabilities of these features for Acoustic Event Classification (AEC) tasks could be enhanced by taking into account the spectro-temporal structure of acoustic event signals. In this paper, a new front-end for AEC which incorporates this specific information is proposed. It consists of two different stages: short-time feature extraction and temporal feature integration. The first module aims at providing a better spectral representation of the different acoustic events on a frame-by-frame basis, by means of the automatic selection of the optimal set of frequency bands from which cepstral-like features are extracted. The second stage is designed for capturing the most relevant temporal information in the short-time features, through the application of Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) on their periodograms computed over long audio segments. The whole front-end has been evaluated in clean and noisy conditions. Experiments show that the removal of certain frequency bands (which are mainly located in the medium region of the spectrum for clean conditions and in low frequencies for noisy environments) in the short-time feature computation process in conjunction with the NMF technique for temporal feature integration improves significantly the performance of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based AEC system with respect to the use of conventional MFCCs. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. ItemAn alternative method based on RF to classify porous ceramic materials(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018) Choquehuanca Zevallos, Juan José; Huaman-Mamani, F.A.; Mayta Ponce, Denis Leonardo; Ludeña Choez, Jimmy DiestinSeveral properties of ceramic materials such as mechanical strength, acoustical characteristics, etc. are related to their degree of porosity. Traditional methods to estimate the porosity of materials used in construction are two slow and tedious to perform, rising the need of searching new techniques to get the degree of porosity in a fast and robust way. In this paper, a system to estimate indirectly the degree of porosity by classifying ceramic samples according the changes produced in the radio frequency response is presented. The proposal uses a patch antenna to extract relevant features that help to estimate the class of a given ceramic sample. Results show that it is possible to classify samples based on the changes of the spectral response that varies according their level of porosity since they affect the propagated waves around the antenna when they are located on the surface of the patch, and so impinges upon directly on resonance frequency and bandwidth of the antenna. © 2018 IEEE. ItemAn approach of social navigation based on proxemics for crowded environments of humans and robots(MDPI, 2021) Daza Guardamino, Marcos Julio; Barrios Aranibar, DennisNowadays, mobile robots are playing an important role in different areas of science, industry, academia and even in everyday life. In this sense, their abilities and behaviours become increasingly complex. In particular, in indoor environments, such as hospitals, schools, banks and museums, where the robot coincides with people and other robots, its movement and navigation must be programmed and adapted to robot–robot and human–robot interactions. However, existing approaches are focused either on multi-robot navigation (robot–robot interaction) or social navigation with human presence (human–robot interaction), neglecting the integration of both approaches. Proxemic interaction is recently being used in this domain of research, to improve Human–Robot Interaction (HRI). In this context, we propose an autonomous navigation approach for mobile robots in indoor environments, based on the principles of proxemic theory, integrated with classical navigation algorithms, such as ORCA, Social Momentum, and A*. With this novel approach, the mobile robot adapts its behaviour, by analysing the proximity of people to each other, with respect to it, and with respect to other robots to decide and plan its respective navigation, while showing acceptable social behaviours in presence of humans. We describe our proposed approach and show how proxemics and the classical navigation algorithms are combined to provide an effective navigation, while respecting social human distances. To show the suitability of our approach, we simulate several situations of coexistence of robots and humans, demonstrating an effective social navigation. ItemAn approach of social navigation based on proxemics for crowded environments of humans and robots(MDPI AG, 2021) Daza, Marcos; Barrios-Aranibar, Dennis; Diaz-Amado, José; Cardinale, Yudith; Vilasboas, João"Nowadays, mobile robots are playing an important role in different areas of science, industry, academia and even in everyday life. In this sense, their abilities and behaviours become increasingly complex. In particular, in indoor environments, such as hospitals, schools, banks and museums, where the robot coincides with people and other robots, its movement and navigation must be programmed and adapted to robot-robot and human-robot interactions. However, existing approaches are focused either on multi-robot navigation (robot-robot interaction) or social navigation with human presence (human-robot interaction), neglecting the integration of both approaches. Proxemic interaction is recently being used in this domain of research, to improve Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). In this context, we propose an autonomous navigation approach for mobile robots in indoor environments, based on the principles of proxemic theory, integrated with classical navigation algorithms, such as ORCA, Social Momentum, and A*. With this novel approach, the mobile robot adapts its behaviour, by analysing the proximity of people to each other, with respect to it, and with respect to other robots to decide and plan its respective navigation, while showing acceptable social behaviours in presence of humans. We describe our proposed approach and show how proxemics and the classical navigation algorithms are combined to provide an effective navigation, while respecting social human distances. To show the suitability of our approach, we simulate several situations of coexistence of robots and humans, demonstrating an effective social navigation." ItemAn approach to improve simultaneous localization and mapping in human populated environments(IEEE, 2021) Inofuente Colque, Kevin Adier; Barrios Aranibar, DennisOne task that autonomous mobile robots have to perform in indoor spaces is to construct the map of their environment and report their location and orientation. This process is called Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). To do so, robots extract data through their sensors. However, in dynamic indoor environments, moving objects induce the SLAM process to collapse or diverge. Moving objects should not be taken into account to generate the map and the occlusions that they generate should be solved. In this work, we propose a robust and flexible approach for SLAM algorithms to perform better in human populated environments; by integrating a filtering scheme that manages moving and static objects. To illustrate the suitability of our approach, we implement Gmapping, as the classical SLAM algorithm, and RANSAC as the filter. Nevertheless, any other SLAM algorithm and filter can be implemented. The simulation tests have been carried out using three museum environments, which the robot can face in real life. Through the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that the proposed approach is efficient in managing the sensor data, filtering the outliers, and thus removing dynamic objects from the map. ItemAn autonomous robot based on a Wheelchair(Scopus, 2012) Gonzales, Raul; Gaona, Federico; Peralta, RaulThis paper presents the design and implementation of an Autonomous Movement Robot based on a Wheelchair. The target coordinates of the destination place are pre-established in the processing unit of the robot and it uses a GPS system and sensors in order to get its final destination and to avoid obstacles in its path respectively. The contribution of this work is the combination of several technologies and techniques that came from different areas such as mechanical, electronic and computer engineering. © 2012 IEEE. ItemAnálisis de sensores electromagnéticos para la monitorización de concentraciones de metales pesados en agua(Universidad Católica San Pablo, 2020) Urizar Ocharan, Richard Alberto; San Román Castillo, Ebert GabrielLa regulación de los máximos niveles permisibles de concentraciones de los diferentes metales pesados en las cuencas hídricas, son en su mayoría, por las faltas y sanciones de las empresas mineras en nuestro país, un problema debido a su toxicidad, no solo para el ecosistema en el que vivimos; sino; para la salud del ser humano. Por las cuales generan tendencia a la creación o mejoras de diferentes sistemas de análisis que detectan la presencia de metales pesados. Actualmente se encuentran en el mercado diferentes propuestas en el análisis de las concentraciones de las partículas metálicas disueltas en agua como la voltamperometría, espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, la espectroscopia de absorción molecular UV, entre otros. Sin embargo, algunos de estos procedimientos resultan complejos para su uso, pueden ser costosos y en la mayoría de los casos no se pueden realizar en tiempo real. En el presente trabajo se muestra el estudio de diferentes tecnologías que contribuyan a la investigación recopilatoria de la contaminación de metales pesados en el agua. ItemAnálisis y diseño de un filtro notch basado en anillos resonadores abiertos SRR de triple banda 2.5/4/5.5GHz(Universidad Católica San Pablo, 2021) Gutierrez Gallegos, Roberto Gustavo; Castillo Araníbar, Patricia RaquelEn el presente proyecto se propone una nueva alternativa para el uso de filtros rechazabanda o notch para las frecuencias 2.5, 4 y 5.5GHz, como alternativas a los ya existentes. Su implementación en sistemas de telecomunicaciones en bloques transmisores o receptores, es fundamental para el procesamiento de señales. El proceso del filtrado de señales evita una posible interferencia de señales adayacentes. Sin embargo, el factor negativo presente en los filtros suele ser el precio comercial y la facilidad de adquisición de los mismos. Por este motivo, se propone una nueva alternativa de filtro rechazabanda a través de la implementación de anillos resonadores abiertos (splitring resonators) sobre microstrip que, debido al acoplamiento mixto (eléctrico y magnético) generado entre los anillos y al excitar una línea de transmisión, logran generar frecuencias de resonancias proporcionarles al número de anillos concéntricos, donde cada frecuencia corresponderá a la longitud del anillo. Este modelo de filtro ofrece ventajas como facilidad de modelamiento y diseño, bajo dimensionamiento físico, costo de construcción muy accesible y alta eficiencia para el filtrado de señales. ItemAnalysis of sound propagation for outdoor emergency speakers networks(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017) Rosas Bermejo, Esther; Rafael Valdivia, Guillermo; Paucar Curasma, RonaldIn this work we show the results of analysis of propagation of sound waves applied for an alert system in the river Chili, in Arequipa city. We used mathematical models, ISO standards, geographical, demographical and environmental variables of Arequipa. A complete mathematical model has been implemented in Matlab. It was compared with results generated by several commercial software, showing good coherence. As result of this paper, we propose a new methodology for the design of a network of emergency speakers for alert systems, assuring coverage and reliability. © 2016 IEEE. ItemAnalysis of sound propagation for outdoor emergency speakers networks(2016 IEEE ANDESCON, 2017) Rosas Bermejo, Esther Natalia; Rafael Valdivia, GuillermoAbstract:In this work we show the results of analysis of propagation of sound waves applied for an alert system in the river Chili, in Arequipa city. We used mathematical models, ISO standards, geographical, demographical and environmental variables of Arequipa. A complete mathematical model has been implemented in Matlab. It was compared with results generated by several commercial software, showing good coherence. As result of this paper, we propose a new methodology for the design of a network of emergency speakers for alert systems, assuring coverage and reliability. ItemApplication of a methodological approach to compare ontologies(Emerald Group Holdings Ltd., 2021) Cardinale, Yudith; Cornejo-Lupa, Maria Alejandra; Pinto-De la Gala, Alexander; Ticona-Herrera, Regina"Purpose: This study aims to the OQuaRE quality model to the developed methodology. Design/methodology/approach: Ontologies are formal, well-defined and flexible representations of knowledge related to a specific domain. They provide the base to develop efficient and interoperable solutions. Hence, a proliferation of ontologies in many domains is unleashed. Then, it is necessary to define how to compare such ontologies to decide which one is the most suitable for the specific needs of users/developers. As the emerging development of ontologies, several studies have proposed criteria to evaluate them. Findings: In a previous study, the authors propose a methodological process to qualitatively and quantitatively compare ontologies at Lexical, Structural and Domain Knowledge levels, considering correctness and quality perspectives. As the evaluation methods of the proposal are based on a golden-standard, it can be customized to compare ontologies in any domain. Practical implications: To show the suitability of the proposal, the authors apply the methodological approach to conduct comparative studies of ontologies in two different domains, one in the robotic area, in particular for the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem; and the other one, in the cultural heritage domain. With these cases of study, the authors demonstrate that with this methodological comparative process, we are able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of ontologies, as well as the gaps still needed to fill in the target domains. Originality/value: Using these metrics and the quality model from OQuaRE, the authors are incorporating a standard of software engineering at the quality validation into the Semantic Web. " ItemApplication of social constraints for dynamic navigation considering semantic annotations on geo-referenced maps(IEEE Computer Society, 2021) Vilasboas, J.P.A.; Sampaio, M.S.C.A; Moreira, G.F.A.; Souza, A.B.A; DIaz-Amado, J.A.; Barrios-Aranibar, D.B.; Cardinale, Y.B.; Soares, J.E.A."With the robotics development, social robots interact with people, demanding they model the human being behavior to increase social navigation, considering proxemic spaces.However, human proxemic preferences can change in function of different social restrictions (e.g., culture, gender, local, the environment). Thus, robots should consider all these aspects to tailor their navigation. Towards an adaptable social navigation, in this article we develop the GProxemic Navigation system that allows identifying the robot localization in a geo-referenced map, with semantic annotations related to social restrictions, in function of which they chose the correct proxemic spaces they most respect in their autonomous navigation process. Results show that the GProxemic Navigation system efficiently obeys the proxemic space through the semantic annotations received. ©2021 IEEE"