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|Title:||Trail Making Test: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish-speaking pediatric population|
|Authors:||Arango Lasprilla, Juan Carlos|
Aguilar Rivera, Daniel
Ramos Usuga, D.
Vergara Moragues, Esperanza
Montero López, E.
Adana Díaz, L.
Aguayo Arelis, A.
García Guerrero, Cristina Elizabeth
Garcia de la Cadena, Claudia
Llerena Espezúa, X.
Padilla López, Alfredo
Rodriguez Irizarry, W.
Alcazar Tebar, C.
Irías Escher, Maria
Llibre Guerra, J.
Torales Cabrera, N.
Rodríguez Agudelo, Yaneth
Ferrer Cascales, R.
|Keywords:||child;Chile;Cuba;Ecuador;education;female;girl;Guatemala;human;major clinical study;male;Mexico;multiple linear regression analysis;neuropsychology;Paraguay;Peru;Puerto Rico;Spain;speech;trail making test|
|Abstract:||OBJECTIVE: To generate normative data for the Trail Making Test (TMT) in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. METHOD: The sample consisted of 3,337 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the TMT as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. The TMT-A and TMT-B scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age 2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. RESULTS: The final multiple linear regression models showed main effects for age on both scores, such that as children needed less time to complete the test while they become older. TMT-A scores were affected by age 2 for all countries except, Cuba, Guatemala, and Puerto. TMT-B scores were affected by age 2 for all countries except, Guatemala and Puerto Rico. Models indicated that children whose parent(s) had a MLPE >12 years of education needed less time to complete the test compared to children whose parent(s) had a MLPE ?12 years for Mexico and Paraguay in TMT-A scores; and Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, and Spain for TMT-B scores. Sex affected TMT-A scores for Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru, in that boys needed less time to complete the test than girls. Sex did not affect TMT-B scores. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate approach to interpret the TMT in pediatric populations. © 2017 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Artículos de investigación|
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