A Methodological Approach to the Learning of Robotics with EDUROSC-Kids

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Springer Science and Business Media B.V.
With advances in science and technology, several innovative researches have been developed trying to figure out the main problems related to children’s learning. It is known that issues such as frustration and inattention, between others, affect student learning. In this fashion, robotics is an important resource that can be used towards helping to solve these issues, empowering our students in order to push their learning up. In this case, robotic tools are generally used considering two different paradigms: as the main focus and as a secondary focus. Actually, these paradigms define the way that Educational Robotics is implemented in schools. Most of the approaches have implemented it as the main focus, which is teaching Robotics. Nevertheless, there are quite a few works that implement robotics as a secondary focus, which is currently assisting the learning process in several disciplines. The main contribution of this work is a complete three steps methodology for Robotics in Education to guide projects in order to either use it alone or to teach robotics with others topics. Our experiments show the importance of devising a study plan and evaluation method because the process is iterative and could improve the final results. As a novelty, here we have joined and extended our previous works by proposing a new set of methods with guidelines and strategies for applying the educational robotics standard curriculum for kids, named EDUROSC-Kids. We propose several tools that have been developed to organize the learning topics of Robotics for children, including the desired outcomes during the learning process. As said our current approach is divided in three steps (or phases): setting up the environment, defining the project, and performing evaluation. The proposed curriculum organizes robotics contents into five disciplines: Robotics and Society, Mechanics, Electronics, Programming, and Control Theory. Also, it considers a set of topics for each discipline and defines the level of knowledge that is recommended to achieve each group of children based on Bloom’s Nomenclature. The contribution on this paper is a crucial step towards linking the general learning process with Educational Robotics approaches. Our methodology is validated by presenting practical experiences with application of EDUROSC-kids and the proposed method with a rubric guidelines into groups of children.