Shortened Version of the Token Test: Normative data for Spanish-speaking pediatric population
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OBJECTIVE: To generate normative data for the Shortened Version of the Token Test in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. METHOD: The sample consisted of 4,373 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the Shortened Version of the Token Test as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. Shortened Version of the Token Test total scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age 2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. RESULTS: The final multiple linear regression models showed main effects for age in all countries, such that score increased linearly as a function of age. In addition, age 2 had a significant effect in all countries, except Guatemala and Puerto Rico. Models showed that children whose parent(s) had a MLPE >12 years obtained higher score compared to children whose parents had a MLPE ?12 years in Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Spain. The child's sex did not have an effect in the Shortened Version of the Token Test total score for any of the countries. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate interpretation of the Shortened Version of the Token Test when used in pediatric populations. © 2017 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.